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英語I 2004年度・冬学期・1年生試験問題

解答はすべて解答用紙に記入のこと。  【 】内は、各々、解答欄の番号・記号を示す。選択式解答欄(マーク式)は155、記述式解答欄はA〜F(表)、ア・イ(裏)、カ〜コ(裏)。なお問題 F  I は、聞き取り問題(あらかじめ問題を読んでおくこと)。

 

 A  次の文章を読み各設問に答えよ。

    〔前略〕() The generic we can know, but the specific eludes us….〔中略〕

    If we heat a clear liquid (say, clean distilled water) in a clean, smooth beaker, at what point will the first bubble of stream appear? At what temperature? And at what instant?

    (10) These questions are unanswerable unless there is a tiny roughness in the inner surface of the beaker or a speck of dust in the liquid. In the absence of such an evident nucleus for the beginning of the change of state, no prediction is possible; and because we cannot say where the change will start, we also cannot say when. Therefore, we cannot say at what temperature boiling will begin….〔中略〕

In contrast, the movement of planets in the solar system, the trend of a chemical reaction in an ionic mixture of salts, the impact of billiard balls, which involves millions of molecules --- all are (   1  ) because our description of the events has as its subject matter the behavior of immense crowds or classes of individuals. It is this that gives science some justification for statistics, providing the statistician always remembers that his statements have reference only to (   2   ).

There is a deep gulf between statements about an identified individual and statements about a class. Such statements are of different logical type, and prediction from one to the other is always (   3  ). The statement “The liquid is boiling” is of different logical type from the statement “That molecule will be the first to go.”

    This matter has a number of sorts of relevance to the theory of history, to the philosophy behind evolutionary theory, and in general, to our understanding of the world in which we live.

    In the theory of history, Marxian philosophy insists that the great men who have been the historic nuclei for profound social change or invention are, in a certain sense, (   4   ) to the changes they precipitated. It is argued, for example, that in 1859, the occidental world was ready and (   5   ) to create and receive a theory of evolution that could reflect and justify the ethics of the Industrial Revolution. From that point of view, Charles Darwin himself could be made to appear unimportant. If he had not put out his theory, somebody else would have put out a similar theory within the next five years. (11) Indeed, the parallelism between Alfred Russel Wallace’s theory and that of Darwin would seem at first sight to support this view.

 

15空欄 ()()に入るべき語を選べ。同じ語を二度用いてはならない。

a. aggregates

b. decisive

c. individuals

d. irrelevant

e. relevant

f. ripe

g. predictable

h. unpredictable

i. unsure

j. withered

69下線部(あ)に関し、次の【6】〜【9】は、この文章の主張に従うと (a) the generic(b) the specificのいずれかの例として用いられているか。各々、abをマークせよ。

                            6The point where the first bubble of steam appears.

                            7The movement of planets in the solar system.

                            8The liquid is boiling.

                            9Darwin put out his theory of evolution.

10下線部(10)はなぜそうなのか。本文の内容にてらして最適の理由を一つ選べ。

        a. Because no significant difference can be found in the substance tested.

              b. Because the boiling experiment is not performed critically enough.

              c. Because these questions are concerned with crowds of individuals.

              d. Because these questions are of different logical types from each other.

              e. Because these questions cannot be identified in any statistical sense.

11下線部(11)と内容的に最も近いものを一つ選べ。

a. It is in accordance with Marxian philosophy of history that Wallace’s theory and Darwin’s do not correspond to each other.

b. In the historical perspective, Wallace’s theory, though less popular today, would be appear as innovative as Darwin’s.

c. The face that both Wallace and Darwin proposed theories of evolution around 1859 would make their differences all the more unambiguous.

d. The similarity between Wallace’s theory and that of Darwin seemingly confirms the standpoint of the author of the passage.

e. The striking resemblance between Wallace’s and Darwin’s theories might make us ignore the respective importance of these two persons.

 

 B  次の文章を読み各設問に答えよ。

Herbert Gutman tells us of an advertisement (  12  ) among black Alabamans during a Kansas coal strike of 1896-97:

 

WANTED! COLORED coal-miners for Weir City, Kan. district, the paradise for colored people….Special train will leave Birmingham the 13th. Transportation (17) advanced. Get ready and go to the land of promise.

 

Industrial wages held a utopian promise for () many freedman historically denied any claim to the land. Wages could provide the wherewithal for former slaves to return south and establish, for the first time, a sovereignty on the land --- a hope (  13  ) by the broken promise of Reconstruction: “Forty acres and a mule.” It is only (  14  ) that the first contact with an emerging consumer society should have come in the form of an advertisement, an artifact so characteristic of such a world.

The flyer offered a first glimpse of a distant society where industrial development and a triumphal ideology of progress were (  15  ) new precepts of survival. (18) America was not a land where life proceeded according to the venerable laws of nature. Industrial growth required the taming of the natural world, molding it to the expansive imaginations of technological dreamers. Man would create a nature of his own. The world those peasants came to was one without a peasantry; its landed wealth had been (  16  ) by means of large-scale capitalist agriculture.

 

1216空欄(12)(16)に入るべき語を選べ。同じ語を二度用いてはならない。

              a. amassed    b. distributed  c. fitting    d. forging    e. juxtaposing

              f. instilled     g. segregated

17下線部(17)advancedと同じ意味のadvancedを含む文を一つ選べ。

              a. She readily advanced me the money.

              b. The board of directors advanced him to president.

              c. The general advanced his troops to the new position.

              d. The market advanced suddenly.

              e. The product has advanced in price.

【ア】 下線部(ア)を日本語に訳し、解答欄【ア】に記入せよ(足りなければ【イ】も使用してよい)。

18この文章全体を踏まえて、下線部(18)と内容的に最も近いものを一つ選べ。

a. American was a land of opportunity where people tended to exploit nature rather than adapt their lives to its rhythms.

b. American was a land of promise where farmers could cultivate wasteland as much as they had expanded the frontier of their land.

c. America was a paradise where natural laws could be disregarded for the sake of people’s political freedom.

d. America was a progressive society where technological advances had taken away the supremacy from feudal lords.

e. America was a safe refuge where slaves were to be emancipated from the ancient sovereignty of land.

 

 C  次の文章を読み各設問に答えよ。

    [Edward] Westermarck suggested that () if people see others doing things that they do not do themselves, they try to stop them. Left-handers have been feared in the past and were forced to adopt the habits of right-handers, not simply “for their own good.” Again, gays have been given a hard time in most cultures. In the same way, he suggested, those who committed incest were discriminated against. People who are familiar with members of the opposite sex from early life are not much attracted to those individuals, and when they spot (28) others who are, they disapprove. (29) It was nothing to do with society not wanting to look after the half-witted children of inbreeding, since in many cases they had no idea that in breeding had biological costs. It was all about the suppression of disharmonizing (  19  ) behavior. Such conformism looks (  20  ) to modern eyes, even though we have plenty of examples of it in our own societies. However, when so much depended on () unity of action in the environment in which humans evolved, wayward behavior had potentially (  21  ) consequences for everybody. It is not difficult to see why conformism should have become a(n) (  22  ) trait in human social behavior.

 

1922空欄(19)(22)に入るべき語を選べ。同じ語を二度用いてはならない。

     a. abnormal    b. constructive    c. destructive    d. generous    e. harsh

     f. irresponsible    g. neutral      h. obvious       i. powerful     j. usable

2327下線部(い)で示された状況で、peopleothersに対して、もしくはothersの行動に対してとる行動や態度として、文章中で以下の【23】〜【27】は述べられているか。述べられている場合a、述べられていない場合bを各々マークせよ。

       23to adopt       24to commit       25to disapprove

       26to suppress    27to depend on   

28下線部(28)に続けるとして、最適なものを一つ選べ。

       a. gays

              b. discriminated against

              c. familiar with members of the opposite sex from early life

              d. attracted to those individuals

              e. wanting to look after the half-witted children of inbreeding

29下線部(29)の意味として最適なものを一つ選べ。

a. It was important for society to want to look after the half-witted children of inbreeding.

b. Society could not encourage people to want to look after the half-witted children of inbreeding.

c. Such disapproval of looking after the half-witted children of inbreeding was rather a personal matter than a social one.

d. There is no relationship between such disapproval and the tendency for society not to want to look after the half-witted children of inbreeding.

e. The reason why people did not want to look after the half-witted children of inbreeding lied in society’s needs.

【A】文章中、下線部(A)と最も近い意味で用いられている単語を一つ選び、解答欄【A】に記入せよ。

 

 D  次の文に続ける形で、以下のagを意味の通る一続きの文章となるように並べ替え、該当する箇所に文の記号をマークせよ。

    The most popular explanations of what sleep is for attempt to situate sleep in its natural environment: the brain.

 

30】―【31】―【32】―【33】―【34】―【35】―【36

 

a. All of which suggests that REM sleep plays some role in neural development.

b. (All primates sleep at least eight hours a night.)

c. And newborn humans have a higher proportion of REM sleep than grown-ups.

d. But REM sleep occupies a much larger portion of sleep in humans and other species that are born helpless and have a lot of development to do.

e. Dolphins, for example, follow this pattern.

f. For years, researchers have focused their attention on REM sleep, the portion of sleep known for producing rapid eye movements, highly excited brain activity, and the most vivid dreams in adult humans.

g. Some mammals, particularly those with precocious newborns able to fend for themselves shortly after birth, require very little REM sleep.

 

 E  次の文章は【B】〜【F】の五つの部分に分かれる。各部分には、取り去るべき単語が一つずつ含まれている。その単語を抜き出し、各々解答欄【B】〜【F】に記入せよ。

【B】Today, the tunnels still lie under the city of Beijing, useless and forgotten. Above them, the city in pulses with a peacetime energy and the subway system is heavily used.【C】Whatever ancient sites survived air-raids the shocking changes of modernization now seem dislocated, like mutilated limbs on a new body. 【D】The Forbidden City, for instance, sprawls in its dilapidated splendor behind Tiananmen looks like an embalmed and isolated relic of the distant past. 【E】Directly across the street lies Mao’s mausoleum: the Chairman, too, is embalmed and isolated, in better trim body because he is a relic of a more recent past. 【F】Both sites have become Beijing’s tourist attractions. People line up to pay homage, to satisfy curiosity, to get sentimental about history, for both eras they are gone forever.

 

 

〈〈以下は聞き取り問題。放送は2回ずつ流れる。〉〉

 

 F  放送を聴き、空欄を読まれた通りの語句で埋めよ(空欄内は入るべき単語の数)。

 

              On a summer’s morning, a giant fireball was seen moving across the sky. 【カ】 (   6 words   ), an enormous explosion took place.     The explosion was visible from you could read newspapers at night in London 10,000 kilometers away. It was easy to locate the point of impact, because the trees had all 【ク】(   5 words  ). Some scientists have suggested that it was a mini black hole from space which hit the Earth in Siberia, and 【ケ】(   4 words   ) the other side of the planet. The problem is that at the other side there is no sign of anything 【コ】(   5 words   ) the Earth later that day.

 

 G  放送を聴き各設問に答えよ(設問は40まである)。

 

37放送の中でpackageないしto packageを修飾しているものを二つ選べ。

              a. actually    b. different    c. fresh    d. modern    e. neatly

38放送の中でpackageされていると述べているものを二つ選べ。

              a. customers    b. desire    c. examination    d. fruits

              e. music        f. stores

39放送の中でpackagesの果たしうる役割とされているものを二つ選べ。

              a. to give customers information for deciding which item to buy

              b. to keep items fresh and crisp

              c. to make it easy to arrange items on shelves

              d. to stimulate customers’ desire to buy items

              e. to eliminate the chance of close examination of item by customers

40放送の内容と一致するものを二つ選べ。

              a. Information provided by packages may not be faithful or accurate.

              b. Items have the same differences as the packages.

              c. Packages are carefully selected by stores and shopping plazas.

              d. Packages play a small role in our decision on buying.

              e. The concept of packaging is not limited to items to be purchased.

 

 H  次の文章は、放送の内容に関する要約である。放送を聴き、空欄を埋めるのに最適なものを各々一つずつ選べ(あらかじめ次の文章を読んでおくこと)。

 

The lecture starts this mini-lecture by thinking about questions people in the past might have raised (  41  ) the end of the twentieth century. The first thing that comes to his mind is speed, for people appear to have been (  42  ) by the idea of speed. People imagined they would be traveling between Paris and London (  43  ) as casually as they took a taxi. Reversing the aging clock is another human wish. Some People even fantasized that force moving or directed (  44  ) the center would somehow bring back youth to elderly people.

The lecturer is of the opinion that people were generally inclined to take a[n] (  45  ) view of future conditions. He thinks that most of what people expected about the year 2000 has (  46  ). What he regards most essential to the advancement of science and technology at the turn of the century is (  47  ). At the end of the day, the lecturer is (  48  ) about prospects for the days to come.

 

41 a. criticizing     b. evaluating                              c. picturing             d. wondering

42 a. dismissed    b. distressed     c. possessed       d. processed

43 a. by air    b. by atomic energy                                  c. by time warp             d. by underground

44 a. downward to  b. inward to    c. outward from    d. upward from

45 a. come true                               b. faint        c. favorable            d. unlikely

46 a. generic engineering       b. information technology

  c. material progress          d. mental development

48 a. pessimistic      b. positive           c. resolved          d. undecided

 

 I  まず本文に関する七つの短文が放送され、続いて本文が放送された後、全体が繰り返される。七つの短文が、各々、本文の内容と一致する場合a、一致しない場合bをマークせよ。なお放送される本文は、ある女性精神分析家が書いた自伝の冒頭である。

 

                   放送の順序は次のとおりなので、くれぐれも注意すること

                               七つの短文〔各短文間の間隔約7秒〕→本文→〔15秒の空白〕

                               →七つの短文〔各短文間の間隔約3秒〕→本文

 

                 〈〈解答欄〉〉: No.1=49   No.2=50   No.3= 51    No.4=52         No.5=53             No.6=54   No.7=55