〔前略〕…(あ) The generic we can know, but the specific eludes us….〔中略〕…
If we heat a clear liquid (say, clean distilled water) in a clean, smooth beaker, at what point will the first bubble of stream appear? At what temperature? And at what instant?
(10) These questions are unanswerable unless there is a tiny roughness in the inner surface of the beaker or a speck of dust in the liquid. In the absence of such an evident nucleus for the beginning of the change of state, no prediction is possible; and because we cannot say where the change will start, we also cannot say when. Therefore, we cannot say at what temperature boiling will begin….〔中略〕…
In contrast, the movement of planets in the solar system, the trend of a chemical reaction in an ionic mixture of salts, the impact of billiard balls, which involves millions of molecules --- all are ( 1 ) because our description of the events has as its subject matter the behavior of immense crowds or classes of individuals. It is this that gives science some justification for statistics, providing the statistician always remembers that his statements have reference only to ( 2 ).
There is a deep gulf between statements about an identified individual and statements about a class. Such statements are of different logical type, and prediction from one to the other is always ( 3 ). The statement “The liquid is boiling” is of different logical type from the statement “That molecule will be the first to go.”
This matter has a number of sorts of relevance to the theory of history, to the philosophy behind evolutionary theory, and in general, to our understanding of the world in which we live.
In the theory of history, Marxian philosophy insists that the great men who have been the historic nuclei for profound social change or invention are, in a certain sense, ( 4 ) to the changes they precipitated. It is argued, for example, that in 1859, the occidental world was ready and ( 5 ) to create and receive a theory of evolution that could reflect and justify the ethics of the Industrial Revolution. From that point of view, Charles Darwin himself could be made to appear unimportant. If he had not put out his theory, somebody else would have put out a similar theory within the next five years. (11) Indeed, the parallelism between Alfred Russel Wallace’s theory and that of Darwin would seem at first sight to support this view.
【6〜9】下線部（あ）に関し、次の【６】〜【９】は、この文章の主張に従うと (a) the generic、(b) the specificのいずれかの例として用いられているか。各々、aかbをマークせよ。
【6】The point where the first bubble of steam appears.
【7】The movement of planets in the solar system.
【8】The liquid is boiling.
【9】Darwin put out his theory of evolution.
a. Because no significant difference can be found in the substance tested.
b. Because the boiling experiment is not performed critically enough.
c. Because these questions are concerned with crowds of individuals.
d. Because these questions are of different logical types from each other.
e. Because these questions cannot be identified in any statistical sense.
a. It is in accordance with Marxian philosophy of history that Wallace’s theory and Darwin’s do not correspond to each other.
b. In the historical perspective, Wallace’s theory, though less popular today, would be appear as innovative as Darwin’s.
c. The face that both Wallace and Darwin proposed theories of evolution around 1859 would make their differences all the more unambiguous.
d. The similarity between Wallace’s theory and that of Darwin seemingly confirms the standpoint of the author of the passage.
e. The striking resemblance between Wallace’s and Darwin’s theories might make us ignore the respective importance of these two persons.
Herbert Gutman tells us of an advertisement ( 12 ) among black Alabamans during a Kansas coal strike of 1896-97:
WANTED! COLORED coal-miners for Weir City, Kan. district, the paradise for colored people….Special train will leave Birmingham the 13th. Transportation (17) advanced. Get ready and go to the land of promise.
Industrial wages held a utopian promise for (ア) many freedman historically denied any claim to the land. Wages could provide the wherewithal for former slaves to return south and establish, for the first time, a sovereignty on the land --- a hope ( 13 ) by the broken promise of Reconstruction: “Forty acres and a mule.” It is only ( 14 ) that the first contact with an emerging consumer society should have come in the form of an advertisement, an artifact so characteristic of such a world.
The flyer offered a first glimpse of a distant society where industrial development and a triumphal ideology of progress were ( 15 ) new precepts of survival. (18) America was not a land where life proceeded according to the venerable laws of nature. Industrial growth required the taming of the natural world, molding it to the expansive imaginations of technological dreamers. Man would create a nature of his own. The world those peasants came to was one without a peasantry; its landed wealth had been ( 16 ) by means of large-scale capitalist agriculture.
a. amassed b. distributed c. fitting d. forging e. juxtaposing
f. instilled g. segregated
a. She readily advanced me the money.
b. The board of directors advanced him to president.
c. The general advanced his troops to the new position.
d. The market advanced suddenly.
e. The product has advanced in price.
a. American was a land of opportunity where people tended to exploit nature rather than adapt their lives to its rhythms.
b. American was a land of promise where farmers could cultivate wasteland as much as they had expanded the frontier of their land.
c. America was a paradise where natural laws could be disregarded for the sake of people’s political freedom.
d. America was a progressive society where technological advances had taken away the supremacy from feudal lords.
e. America was a safe refuge where slaves were to be emancipated from the ancient sovereignty of land.
[Edward] Westermarck suggested that (い) if people see others doing things that they do not do themselves, they try to stop them. Left-handers have been feared in the past and were forced to adopt the habits of right-handers, not simply “for their own good.” Again, gays have been given a hard time in most cultures. In the same way, he suggested, those who committed incest were discriminated against. People who are familiar with members of the opposite sex from early life are not much attracted to those individuals, and when they spot (28) others who are, they disapprove. (29) It was nothing to do with society not wanting to look after the half-witted children of inbreeding, since in many cases they had no idea that in breeding had biological costs. It was all about the suppression of disharmonizing ( 19 ) behavior. Such conformism looks ( 20 ) to modern eyes, even though we have plenty of examples of it in our own societies. However, when so much depended on (Ａ) unity of action in the environment in which humans evolved, wayward behavior had potentially ( 21 ) consequences for everybody. It is not difficult to see why conformism should have become a(n) ( 22 ) trait in human social behavior.
a. abnormal b. constructive c. destructive d. generous e. harsh
f. irresponsible g. neutral h. obvious i. powerful j. usable
【23】to adopt 【24】to commit 【25】to disapprove
【26】to suppress 【27】to depend on
b. discriminated against
c. familiar with members of the opposite sex from early life
d. attracted to those individuals
e. wanting to look after the half-witted children of inbreeding
a. It was important for society to want to look after the half-witted children of inbreeding.
b. Society could not encourage people to want to look after the half-witted children of inbreeding.
c. Such disapproval of looking after the half-witted children of inbreeding was rather a personal matter than a social one.
d. There is no relationship between such disapproval and the tendency for society not to want to look after the half-witted children of inbreeding.
e. The reason why people did not want to look after the half-witted children of inbreeding lied in society’s needs.
The most popular explanations of what sleep is for attempt to situate sleep in its natural environment: the brain.
a. All of which suggests that REM sleep plays some role in neural development.
b. (All primates sleep at least eight hours a night.)
c. And newborn humans have a higher proportion of REM sleep than grown-ups.
d. But REM sleep occupies a much larger portion of sleep in humans and other species that are born helpless and have a lot of development to do.
e. Dolphins, for example, follow this pattern.
f. For years, researchers have focused their attention on REM sleep, the portion of sleep known for producing rapid eye movements, highly excited brain activity, and the most vivid dreams in adult humans.
g. Some mammals, particularly those with precocious newborns able to fend for themselves shortly after birth, require very little REM sleep.
On a summer’s morning, a giant fireball was seen moving across the sky. 【カ】 ( 6 words ), an enormous explosion took place. The explosion was visible from you could read newspapers at night in London 10,000 kilometers away. It was easy to locate the point of impact, because the trees had all 【ク】( 5 words ). Some scientists have suggested that it was a mini black hole from space which hit the Earth in Siberia, and 【ケ】( 4 words ) the other side of the planet. The problem is that at the other side there is no sign of anything 【コ】( 5 words ) the Earth later that day.
a. actually b. different c. fresh d. modern e. neatly
a. customers b. desire c. examination d. fruits
e. music f. stores
a. to give customers information for deciding which item to buy
b. to keep items fresh and crisp
c. to make it easy to arrange items on shelves
d. to stimulate customers’ desire to buy items
e. to eliminate the chance of close examination of item by customers
a. Information provided by packages may not be faithful or accurate.
b. Items have the same differences as the packages.
c. Packages are carefully selected by stores and shopping plazas.
d. Packages play a small role in our decision on buying.
e. The concept of packaging is not limited to items to be purchased.
The lecture starts this mini-lecture by thinking about questions people in the past might have raised ( 41 ) the end of the twentieth century. The first thing that comes to his mind is speed, for people appear to have been ( 42 ) by the idea of speed. People imagined they would be traveling between Paris and London ( 43 ) as casually as they took a taxi. Reversing the aging clock is another human wish. Some People even fantasized that force moving or directed ( 44 ) the center would somehow bring back youth to elderly people.
The lecturer is of the opinion that people were generally inclined to take a[n] ( 45 ) view of future conditions. He thinks that most of what people expected about the year 2000 has ( 46 ). What he regards most essential to the advancement of science and technology at the turn of the century is ( 47 ). At the end of the day, the lecturer is ( 48 ) about prospects for the days to come.
【41】 a. criticizing b. evaluating c. picturing d. wondering
【42】 a. dismissed b. distressed c. possessed d. processed
【43】 a. by air b. by atomic energy c. by time warp d. by underground
【44】 a. downward to b. inward to c. outward from d. upward from
【45】 a. come true b. faint c. favorable d. unlikely
【46】 a. generic engineering b. information technology
c. material progress d. mental development
【48】 a. pessimistic b. positive c. resolved d. undecided
〈〈解答欄〉〉: No.1=【49】 No.2=【50】 No.3= 【51】 No.4=【52】 No.5=【53】 No.6=【54】 No.7=【55】