2004年夏学期英語I   1年生試験問題 2004..14.



[A] 次の文章を読んで設問に答えなさい。

This notion of (1) memory as a record or store is so familiar, so congenial, to us that we take it for granted and do not realize at first how problematic it is. And yet all of us have had () the opposite experience, of “normal” memories, everyday memories, being anything but fixed – slipping and changing, becoming modified, whenever we think of them. No two witnesses ever tell the same story, and no story, no memory, ever remains the same. A story is repeated, gets changed with every repetition. It was experiments with such serial storytelling, and with the remembering of pictures, that convinced Frederic Bartlett, in the 1920s and 1930s, that there is no such entity as “memory,” but only the dynamic process of “remembering.”

Bartlett’s conclusion now finds the strongest support in Gerald Edelman’s neuroscientific work, his view of the brain as a ubiquitously active system where a constant shifting is in process, and everything is ( (6) ) updated and re-correlated. There is (2) nothing cameralike, nothing mechanical, in Edelman’s view of the mind: every perception is a creation, every memory a re-creation – all remembering is relating, generalizing, recategorizing.

And yet one wonders whether there are not extraordinary forms, or pathological forms, of memory where this does not apply. What, for example, of (3) the highly accurate, archival memories found in oral cultures, where entire tribal histories, mythologies, epic poems, are transmitted ( (7) ) through a dozen generations? What of the capacity of “idiot savants” to remember books, music, pictures, verbatim, and to reproduce them, ( (8) ) unchanged, years later? What of traumatic memories that seem to replay themselves, ( (9)), without changing a single detail – Freud’s “repetition-compulsion”– for years or decades after the trauma? In all of these, seemingly, there are immense power of (4) reproduction at work, but very much less in the way of (5) reconstruction – as with Franco’s memories. One feels that there is some element of fixation at work, as if they are cut off from the normal processes of recategorization and revision.

It may be that we need to call upon both sorts of concept – (*) memory as dynamic, as constantly revised and represented, but also as images, still present in their original form, though written over and over again by subsequent experience, like palimpsests.


【ア】 下線部()を以下の括弧をうめる形で和訳せよ。解答欄【ア】

              (              )という正反対の経験


【1-5】下線部(1)~(5)は、下線部(*)で示されている記憶の二つの側面”memory as dynamic” “memory as images”のどちらと関連が深いか。前者と関連が深い場合はa、後者の場合はbをマークせよ。解答欄【1-5】



a.  continually

b.  externally

c.  faithfully

d.  figuratively

e.  partially

f.  virtually

g.  unbearably



[B] 次の文章を読んで設問に答えなさい。

    Decolonization brought interesting changes in the structure of contrast pictures, something Mary Louise Pratt drew our attention (  10  ) with her brilliant analysis of landscape descriptions in Western travel literature. Pratt finds that in both colonial and contemporary postcolonial travel accounts the narrator is often looking down on an exotic scene from mountaintop or hotel balcony. This stance and its related stylistics she calls (11) the monarch-of-all-I-survey scene, giving its narrator the opportunity to examine and evaluate the whole and (12) to thereby assert dominance over it. Pratt discerns a dramatic change, however, between the colonial and postcolonial travel literature; (  13  ), the colonial observer glorifies it, seeing a country which is beautiful, rich in resources, and therefore “worth (A) taking.” Sir Richard Burton describes his first view of Lake Tanganyika from a hilltop in 1860:

Nothing, in sooth, could be (  14  ) than this first view of the Tanganyika Lake, as it lay in the lap of the mountains, basking in the gorgeous tropical sunshine. Below and beyond a short foreground of rugged and precipitous hillfold, down which the foot-path zigzags painfully, a narrow strip of emerald green, never sere and marvelously fertile, shelves towards a ribbon of glistening yellow sand.

Contrast this with Paul Theroux’s 1978 vision of Central America, narrated from his hotel balcony:

Guatemala City, an extremely horizontal place, is like a city (on its back. Its ugliness, which is () a threatened look (the low morose houses have earthquake cracks in their facades; the buildings wince at you with bright lines), is ugliest on those streets where, just past the last toppling house, a blue volcano’s cone bulges … [The volcano’s] beauty was undeniable, but it was the beauty of witches.

Rather than the colonial portrait of a cornucopic Eden, here “the task to be accomplished is a negative one of rejection, dissociation, and dismissal” as Pratt notes; the landscape seen as degraded, (  15  ). Postcolonial writers, who can no longer see themselves as engaged in either civilizing mission or easy appropriation of a country, draw a picture of incongruity, disorder, and ugliness.



a.  along

b.  in

c.  to

d.  up



a. all the scene that I survey as monarch

b. the monarch of all that I survey in the scene

c. the monarch of all the scene that I survey

d. the scene that I survey as the monarch of all



a. to claim power over the landscape by looking at its entire view and assessing its value

b. to display complete mastery of the stylistics by surveying and describing the exotic scene in full

c. to exercise control over the whole scene by taking advantage of the rare opportunity to evaluate it

d. to show him- or herself perfectly capable of maintaining the stance by examining the landscape as a whole



a. although they no longer view the landscape from the same angle

b. as they no longer view the landscape from the same angle

c. since both view the landscape from above

d. while both view the landscape from above





a. less extraordinary

b. less traditional

c. more civilized

d. more picturesque







a. broken away

b. colonized

c. polluted

d. unspoiled

e. used up

f. wiped out




[C] 次の文章が一つの段落を形成するように最も適当な順序に並べ替えなさい。a, c, eの位置は与えられている。解答欄【16-20


a.   After Watson and Crick, we know that genes themselves, within their minute internal structure, are long strings of pure digital information.


b. Among many other consequences, this digital revolution at the very core of lift has dealt the final, killing blow to vitalism – the belief that living material is deeply distinct from nonliving material.


c.   Apart from differences in jargon, the pages of a molecular-biology journal might be interchanged with those of a computer-engineering journal.


d. The genetic code is not a binary code as in computers, nor an eight-level code as in some telephone systems, but a quaternary code, with four symbols.


e.   The machine code of the genes is uncannily computerlike.


f.   No longer. Even those philosophers who had been predisposed to a mechanistic view of life would not have dared hope for such total fulfillment of their wildest dreams.


g. Up until 1953 it was still possible to believe that there was something fundamentally and irreducibly mysterious in living protoplasm.


h. What is more, they are truly digital, in the full and strong sense of computers and compact disks, not in the weak sense of the nervous system.


a - (16) - (17) - e - c - (18) - (19) - (20)


[D] 次の【B-F】の各部分には取り去るべき単語が一つずつ含まれている。その単語を抜き出して記入しなさい。ただし、斜線部の文章は範囲外とする。解答欄【B-F


BOne of the most familiar symmetric forms is the one inside which you spend your life on. CThe human body is “bilaterally symmetric,” and meaning that its left half is (near enough) the same as its right half. DAs it noted, the bilateral symmetry of the human form is only approximate: the heart is not central, nor are the two sides of the face identical. EBut the overall form is very close to one that has perfect symmetry, and in order to describe the mathematics of symmetry which we can imagine an idealized human figure whose left side is exactly the same as its right side. But exactly the same? Not entirely. FThe two side of the figure occupy different regions of space; moreover, the left side is a reversal of the right – rather its mirror image.


[E] 次の文章を読んで、空欄(21-24)に当てはまる最も適切な語句を一つ選んでマークせよ。  解答欄【21-24

Scientists already have evidence that even the earliest hominids, the australopithecines, could survive in a variety of habitats and climates. Yale paleontologist Elisabeth Vrba believes that their (   21   ) success – and the subsequent thriving of the genus Homo as well – was tied to climate changes taking place. About 2.5 million to 2.7 million years ago, an ice age sent global temperatures plummeting (  22  ) 20°F, prompting the conversion of moist African woodland into much dryer, open savanna.

By studying fossils, Vrba found that the populations of large mammals in these environments underwent a huge change. Many forest antelopes were placed by giant buffalo and other grazers. Vrba believes that early hominid evolution can be interpreted the same way. (    23    ), forest-dwelling chimpanzees yielded to bipedal creatures better adapted to living in the open. H. erectus, finally, was (  24  ) to spread throughout the Old World.


21 a. biographical   b. environmental    c. evolutionary    d. temporary


22 a. almost beyond    b. as much as    c. no more than    d. right up to


23 a. As grasslands and tree cover continued to expand

            b. As grasslands and tree cover continued to shrink

c. As grasslands continued to expand and tree cover to shrink

d. As grasslands continued to shrink and tree cover to expand


24 a. determined    b. entitled    c. equipped    d. urged




[F] 放送を聴き、空欄()()を読まれた通りの語句で埋めなさい。空欄内には必要な単語の数を示してある。 解答欄【エ―ケ】


Orpheus. The ancient Greek hero known for his beautiful music. When his wife Eurydice died, Orpheus went down to the land of the dead (: 5 words). The king of the underworld was so charmed by his music that he agreed (: 6 words) back to the world of living. There was one condition, though: Orpheus mustn’t turn around during the journey home. He followed the order almost till the end, but when he was just about (: 5 words) and see the sun again, he turned around to share his joy with his wife. In that moment, she was gone. The story of Orpheus has been (: 5 words) many artists. He has appeared in a number of famous paintings, as well as in operas and ballets. In the film Orphée, directed by French poet Jean Cocteau, (: 5 words) twentieth-century Paris. Orpheus is a famous poet, and along with the lovely Eurydice, we meet the Queen of Death driving around in a Rolls-Royce, (: 5 words) motorcyclists.


[G] 放送を聴いて次の問題に答えなさい。放送された本文の内容に照らして最も適切な選択肢を一つ選んでマークすること


25The Soviet Union broke up in 1991. When did government officials in Moscow start misdrawing public maps of their country? 解答欄【25

a. around 1990

b. around 1980

c. around 1960

d. around 1940


26Why did government officials falsify public maps? 解答欄【26

a. Because they did not want foreign countries to get accurate information about the geography of their country.

b. Because they did not want the public to have easy access to the country’s top secret geographical information.

c. Because they feared that access to correct maps might make it easier for foreign diplomats to carry out their missions.

d.   Because they feared that the publication of accurate maps might make their country vulnerable to invasion by foreign ground troops.


27How were the maps falsified? 解答欄【27

a.   A perfectly circular highway was shown as a square with rounded corners.

b.   Some regions were greatly enlarged, sometimes by more than 20,000 square miles.

c.   Towns were erased from one version and then put back in the next one.

d.   Towns were placed far away from where they were, and on the wrong side of railroads.


28Who bought the CIA street maps mentioned in the tape, and why? 解答欄【28

a.   The people working for the American embassy in the Soviet Union, to check the actual locations of places in Moscow.

b.   The people working for the American embassy in the Soviet Union, to check the actual location of places in Washington, D.C.

c.   The people working for the Soviet embassy in the United States, to check the actual locations of places in Moscow.

d.   The people working for the Soviet embassy in the United States, to check the actual locations of places in Washington, D.C.


[H] 本文が放送された後、それに関する4つの文(1)-(4)が読まれる。本文の内容に照らして正しいものにはaを、間違っているものにはbをマークせよ。



[I] 以下の文章は放送で流れる本文の要約である。空欄(33)-(37)に、本文の内容に照らして最も適切な選択肢を一つ選んでマークせよ。 解答欄【33-37


It is important to have foreign students because they (  33  ). It is predicted that the UK could have (  34  ) times more foreign students by 2020. They are expected to come mainly from (  35  ). But in order to make the increase possible, British universities need to (  36  ). One way attract overseas students is to (  37  ).


33  a. boost the economy

            b. make universities less exclusive

            c. raise academic standards

            d. stimulate international interaction


34  a. two   b. three   c. four   d. five


35  a. Africa    b. Asia    c. Europe    d. South America


36  a. advertise themselves actively

            b. be more outspoken about the economy

            c. become more competitive internationally

            d. obtain more funding from the government


37  a. cooperate with US universities

            b. invest more in facilities

            c. offer as many courses as possible

            d. pay more attention to foreign cultures